1. certain hypothesis is true or false whereas

1. The typical evidence given for climate change are:

a. The measurement of atmospheric
carbon dioxide levels since 1958 as measured from the Mauna Loa Observatory in
Hawaii and from the South Pole which shows a steady increase in CO2 levels in
the atmosphere.

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b. The scientific understanding that the temperature has risen
by 0.80C (1.4 °F) since 1900.

c. A reduction in glaciers or the
ice cover in various parts of the world.

The typical evidence given
against the climate change are:

a. Based on the historical
observations, the temperature rise happens first followed by the rise in carbon
dioxide.

b. There is a pause, referring to
a slow rise during 1998-2012.

c. The ice cover is growing,
referring to cherrypicked data from some parts.

2. An evidence is something that conclusively suggests certain
hypothesis is true or false whereas a model is an iteration based exercise that
predicts the future events based on logical and scientific assumptions. In
terms of global warming, the rise in temperature in recent decades compared to
historical temperature through ice core data is an evidence whereas simulation
of the predicted temperature rise due to the continued emissions of greenhouse
gases till the end of this century is a model prediction.

3. The scientific approach demands a complete apathy towards the
subject in question; an unbiased judgment. Whereas the value-based approach
tends to place the judgment based on the beliefs one has due to personal
interest, or falling in line or by collective conscience. The value-based
approach tends to take a side and is much less dependent on the evidence
available whereas the scientific approach relies heavily on the evidence and
methodologies. D Kahan’s study suggests that public divisions over climate
change stem not from the public’s incomprehension of science but from a
distinctive conflict of interest.

4. Carbon footprint: is the term used to refer the overall
carbon emissions by any individual, or a household, or a company or a product.
The bigger the carbon footprint, bigger is the amount of emissions and hence
bigger is the warming impact caused. There is direct and indirect footprint
referring to direct emissions and the secondary emissions by the products we
use respectively.

Greenhouse gases: (carbon dioxide, methane,
nitrous oxide, some industrial chemicals) play a key role, since they are
transparent to the incoming short wavelength solar radiation, but are not quite
transparent to the outgoing longer wavelength radiation from Earth. In fact,
they absorb the outgoing radiation in part, and that traps energy that
otherwise would go out to space.

This phenomenon creates a kind of blanket called the greenhouse effect that keeps Earth warmer
and makes it habitable for us.

 

Sea level change: The
greenhouse effect causes the temperature rise and it makes the glacial ice to
melt causing a change is sea level. This rise in sea level happens very slowly
over the span of many years.

 

 

Mass extinction: It is believed that we are currently witnessing the sixth mass
extinction on the planet earth and the primary cause is believed to be the
climate change. The last mass extinction was 65 million years before which
wiped out the dinosaurs from earth.

Energy: is the primary source of carbon emission. The energy from
electricity is ususaaly produced through fossil fuels causing huge emissions.
The energy consumed by our automobiles are also a big source of carbon
emissions.

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is the scientific
body under the auspices of the United Nations formed in the year of 1988 upon
the request o member countries.

Economic cost/value and ethics: These are interrelated terms where the economic cost of the
certain activity, say, mitigation of carbon emissions might yield more value
than the profit in terms of monetary benefits. Such value propositions are
always ethically supported and justified. Should the underdeveloped countries
spend on climate change mitigation though they never caused it is the ethical
considerations under climate change.

5. From evidences it has been seen that rise in
temperature, rise in level of carbon di oxide, depletion of ozone etc has
raised alarm for the scientific community. This has resulted in taking them
decisions to control the lab level of greenhouse gases, use less fossil fuels,
plant more tress etc. As an alternate reality they see development of such
techniques which can help in keeping temperatures within range. This can be
done by using technologies like energy of sun, wind energy, hydrothermal energy
etc and exporting planets that has life or can survive live. Countries which
are near equator are most benefitted from sun energy and other approaches. The
island nations will be most benefitted as these are in maximum danger. Also,
the developing nations will get benefit from these approaches. USA does is
slightly hesitant to be involved in these technologies as this will interrupt
the development.

6. we can break the hyper partisanship
about this topic by, providing actual research studies on the climate changes,
most are observational studies. Even, providing the outcomes of authentic study
researchers of global warming around various parts of world can break the hyper
partisanship.

7
& 8. Overpopulation is a most important environment issue, slowly
aggravating the forces behind global warming and environmental population. It
was started a few decades ago.                
Manila anthropogenic activities which are created by human population
cases the global warming by increasing the greenhouse gases.                                                                     
Carrying capacity estimates involve making prediction about the future
in demography resource availability and economic development.                                                                                   
Every species on the environment has carrying capacity even the human
population. However it is very difficult for ecologists to calculate human
carrying capacity due to over population. We must care about global warming
because of climate change because it is already affecting our world.

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