CHAPTER national origin, historical period, genre, and subject

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      
CHAPTER 2

                                          
Review of Related Literature

This section is based on literature review. This literature
review will cover the key words such as P.B Shelley, Syed Nasir Raza Kazmi
revolutionary poets, critics views etc.

 2.1 What is Literature?

 

Literature, a body of written works.
The name has commonly been applied to those ideal works of poetry and prose
distinguished by the purpose of their authors and the perceived aesthetic
excellence of their performance. Literature may be classified according to a
variation of systems, including language, national origin, historical period,
genre, and subject matter.

Literature is hundreds of years old
and continues to be one of the most popular courses of study in high schools
and universities around the world.

“Literature adds to reality, it
doesn’t just depict it. It advances the Fundamental capabilities that everyday
life requires and gives; and in this admiration, it waters the deserts that our
lives have as of now gotten to be.”

2.2 What
is Poetry?

It is truly especially hard to give an appropriate meaning
of wonderfully constructed wording is the specialty of capturing and
translating thoughts by the staff of creative energy; the build of admiring in
thought and in expression. That is a creative vocabulary or formation, whether
disclosed musically or in structure. Poetry is a advanved awareness of face
communicated through importance, sound, and musical technology dialect
decisions to call a separate reaction.

Poetry is not only a turning free of
sense, but instead a starting from feeling; It is not necessarily the
announcement of identity, but rather a escape from personality. Be that as it
may, obviously, only those who have identity and thoughts really know what it
intends to need to escape from these matters.

2.3 What
is Romance?

 

Romance is the feeling we follow in
relationships. Once you’ve experienced romance, you won’t forget it and you
won’t stop following that feeling until you find it again. In dating, romance
can spln ‘

Mk,;ark chemistry like the butterfly
feeling in your stomach. In a relationship, romance can keep things fresh,
exciting, breathtaking and interesting.

Romance novelist Rachel Hauck says,
“Romance is not about the sexual
encounters but about awakening the heart.”Author David R. Shumway
states  “Romance is the part of a relationship that adds adventure and
intense emotions, while also offering the possibility of finding the perfect
person for you”.

2.4
Romantic Poets

Today the word ‘romantic’ evokes images
of love and sentimentality, but the term ‘Romanticism’ has a much broad
meaning. It covers a range of developments in art, literature, music and
philosophy, reaching the late 18th and early 19th centuries as Syed Nasir Raza
Kazmi and P.B Shelley. Their very own poetry made individuals to think, raise
their trust and motivate them to remain against the colonialism and other
embarrassing frames. By the goodness of their interesting verse, there writers
stay in the bears of individuals. Their fictional aims are still acknowledged
and recollected.

2.4.1
B.P.Shelley as a Romantic Poet

The life and works of Percy Bysshe
Shelley represent Romanticism in both its extremes of joyful and reflecting
pain, hopelessness. The major themes are there in Shelley’s dramatic if short life
and in his works, puzzling, inspiring, and constant: the restlessness and
meditative, the rebellion against
authority, the interchange with nature, the power of the romantic imagination
and of poetry, the pursuit of ideal love, and the uncultivated spirit ever in
search of freedom—all of these Shelley represent in the way he lived his life
and live on in the strong body of work that he left the world after his
immortal death by drowning at age twenty-nine. While Shelley shares many basic
themes and symbols with his great contemporaries, he has left his peculiar
stamp on Romanticism: the creation
of powerful symbols in his romantic pursuit of the ideal, at the same time
modified by a disbelief. His thought is characterized by an emphasis on taking
the argumentative side of issues, even at the risk of being unwanted and
ridiculed. From the very beginning of his career as a published writer at the
early age of seventeen, throughout his life, and even to the present day the
very name of Shelley has evoked either the strongest vehemence or the warmest
praise, bordering on worship. More than any other English Romantic writer, with
the possible exception of his friend George Gordon, Lord Byron, Shelley’s life
and reputation have had a history and life of their own apart from the
reputation of his several works.

Shelley’s six years at Eton College,
which he entered at age twelve in 1804, are
more notable for his early love interests and for his early literary aims than
for what he learned in the formal curriculum. Shelley often found himself the
sufferer of pressure  as well as being
taunted with titles  such as “Mad
Shelley” and “Shelley the atheist,” a situation alleviated sometimes by the
intervention of his older cousin, Tom Medwin, who was later to become one of
Shelley’s first biographers.

 By the end
of his career at Eton he was reading widely in Plato, Pliny, and Lucretius,
reading Robert Southey enthusiastically and Walter Scott less so, as well as
continuing to read many Gothic romances.

 While at Eton Shelley began two jobs that would
continue with intense zeal throughout his life: writing and loving, the two
often blending together so that the loving becomes the subject matter for the
writing. Although Shelley began writing poems while at Eton, some of which were
published in 1810 in Original Poetry; by Victor and Cazire and some of which
were not published until the 1960s as The Esdaile Notebook, it was perhaps
inevitable that his first publication should have been a Gothic novel,
Zastrozzi (1810). As is typical of popular Gothic romances at the time, the
innocent and modest  hero and heroine,
Verezzi and Julia, and the villains, Matilda and Zastrozzi, are widely drawn.
It is noteworthy that Shelley put his heretical and unbelievable opinions into
the mouth of the villain Zastrozzi, thereby airing those dangerous opinions
without having them refrence to him as the author or narrator. Perhaps the most
surprising thing about Zastrozzi, aside from what it may suggest about
Shelley’s psychological makeup at the time, is the fact that it was studied
twice, one a suspiciously favorable review and the other a predictably vehement
attack, the first but not the last to associate the author’s name with
“immorality.”

Shelley’s other publication prior to
entering Oxford, Original Poetry; by Victor and Cazire—a joint effort by
Shelley and his sister Elizabeth—deservedly met the same fate with the critics
as Zastrozzi, one reviewer having described the volume as “songs of sentimental
nonsense, and very absurd tales of horror.” These early reviews, however
justified they may have been concerning his juvenilia, set the tone for his
treatment by the critics throughout his career, even for alot of his best
works. Clearly the doggerel verse does not foreshadow Shelley’s mastery of the
lyric, but the subject matter of the poems is not only romantic but
characteristically Shelleyan: poetry, love, sorrow, hope, nature, and politics.
Shelley’s love interest in these poems was his cousin Harriet Grove, but their
relationship was discouraged by their families.

When Shelley went up to University
College, Oxford, in 1810 he was already a published and reviewed writer and a
voracious reader with intellectual interests far beyond the rather narrow scope
of the prescribed curriculum.

During his brief stay at Oxford
(less than a year), Shelley undertook three publishing ventures, the primarily
two comparatively innocent attempts at Gothic fiction and poetry, the third a
prose pamphlet, The need of Atheism (1811), which was to have such a
unfortunate effect on his relationship with his family and such a dramatic
effect on his life. Already having written most of his second Gothic romance,
St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian, before he entered Oxford, Shelley published it
with Stockdale, whom he assured it might sell well to the circulating
libraries, in 1811 under the epithet “a Gentleman of the University of Oxford.”
St. Irvyne is notable for the appearance of a prototypical Shelleyan poet
figure, but its two plots are hopelessly complicated and confusing, and, in the
opinion of many observers, unfinished. It appears that in the early pleasure of
college life and other interests, Shelley misplaced hobby in following through
on what was to have been a full-blown three-decker romance.

 Shelley’s attentions were given to two ladies, Elizabeth
Hitchener, his philosophical “soul sister” and correspondent, and Harriet Westbrook,
an attractive young female of sixteen whom Shelley had met his sisster Hellen.

Apparently acting more from reasons of principles and from the idea that
he might mold the sensitive young Harriet than from real love for her, Shelley
swiftely determined to “rescue” her from her unjust situation at her boarding
school in Clapham. Shelley and Harriet eloped to Edinburgh, where, Shelley
violating his principle of Godwinian free love in favor of Harriet’s happiness
and recognition, they have been married on 28 or 29 August 1811. The couple
changed into quickly joined by way of Hogg, who went with them to York and,
being not able to pursue Shelley’s plan for a connection between Hogg and
Shelley’s sister Elizabeth, right away fell in love with Harriet
and tried to seduce her-a pattern he was to repeat, later falling in love with
Mary Shelley and later settling down with Jane Williams. Shelley’s principles
of free love could have accommodated a ménage à trois but not without the
willing consent of Harriet, so Hogg was effectively banished, and, though the
breach was partially healed, he never again enjoyed the same intimacy with
Shelley as he had before this incident.

The Shelley’s spent periods during 1812 and 1813 in London, where
Shelley was able to make new familarity among liberal and literary circles and
to renew earlier friendships such as those with Hogg and Leigh Hunt, a radical London publisher and writer who was to be a lifelong
defender of Shelley.

Once Shelley became a frequent visitor to the Godwin household, it was
inevitable that he would meet the three young ladies living there: Mary Godwin, Jane (later Claire) Clairmont, and Fanny Imlay. It was
equally inevitable that all three women would fall in love with Shelley in
different degrees and that Shelley should fall in love with Mary. As the
daughter of Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft (whose writings Shelley had already
read and admired), Mary represented to Shelley an ideal offspring of two great minds.
Growing up in the Godwin household had exposed Mary to ideas, and she could
read freely in the books in Godwin’s library; moreover, she had an independent
mind and was willing to argue with Shelley when they would go to talk by the
grave of Mary’s mother, rather than be peacefully molded by him, like Harriet.
Perhaps the only real tragedy was that Shelley had not met Mary before he
married Harriet. Although Shelley believed he was following Godwin’s principles
of free love in replacing Harriet with Mary as the object of his highest love
and in offering Harriet to live with them as his sister rather than his wife, Godwin
violently opposed the relationship, and Harriet became disconnected and
completely shattered. Knowing that Godwin and his wife would do what they could
to stop them, Shelley and Mary, accompanied by Jane Clairmont, eloped on the
night of 27 July 1814, first to Calais, then to Paris, and on to Switzerland.
After a six weeks’ stay, the three were forced to return to England because of
money problems.

Alastor, with its use of symbols, romantic elements, and
mythic sources (the Narcissus-Echo myth in particular), marks a real advance
over Shelley’s earlier efforts in writing poetry. Thomas Love Peacock suggested
the title to Shelley: Alastor, which refers not to the name of the Poet, but to
an evil genius or avenging spirits of solitude. Certainly there are elements of
autobiography in the poem, both in the sense that Shelley felt himself to be
haunted by real (the bailiffs) or imagined (assailants) spirits at various
times in his life and in the sense that in his personal relationships he had
made and would again make the same mistake that the Poet makes: of seeking “in
vain for a prototype of his conception” of the idealized part of himself. In
the preface to the poem Shelley cautions against this solitary quest, warning
not only that such pursuits will result in the neglect of one’s social duties
but that they will lead one to loneliness, alienation, and ultimately death.

Shelley was deeply impressed with the power of the natural scenery,
brought on by the combination of the lake and the surrounding mountains,
especially Mont Blanc. Both Shelley and Byron were inspired by the associations
the area had with Rousseau, whom they regarded as the spiritual leader of
romanticism. Shelley was deeply impressed with Rousseau’s descriptions of this
area in Julie; ou La Nouvelle Héloïse (1761). Shelley
also “dosed” Byron with Wordsworth’s descriptions of nature; this influence is
evident in Canto III (1816) of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage

Shelley too
did not come out of this Switzerland trip empty-handed. He was excited to write
two of his finest poems: “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” and Mont Blanc. The “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” reveals the
influence of Wordsworth, of his “Tintern Abbey” and “Ode: Intimations of
Immortality” in particular. As Wordsworth does in “Tintern Abbey,” Shelley in
the “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” suggests how his imagination and poetic
sensitivity were formed by nature, and more significantly, by benefits from the
shadowy power of intellectual beauty and how, in turn, he dedicated his poetic
powers to intellectual beauty. Much as Wordsworth did in his “Intimations” ode,
Shelley laments his feeling that the presence of this power was stronger in his
youth.

 In Mont Blanc Shelley
discovers a similar but even more mysterious power, but the conclusion he
reaches is more dubious, less Wordsworthian. Shelley chose a familiar romantic
topic for this poem: Coleridge’s “Hymn before Sun-Rise in the Vale of
Chamouni,” passages from Rousseau’s Julie, Wordsworth’s
poetry, and Byron’s Childe Harold and Manfred—all have in common the description of the
awesome effect on the observer wrought by Mont Blanc in particular or the Alps
in general. Probably
no passage in Shelley’s
canon has been more widely disputed than the final three lines of Mont Blanc:

And what were thou, and earth, and stars, and
sea,
If to the human mind’s imaginings
Silence and solitude were vacancy?

Two poems written at Este, “Lines Written among the Euganean Hills” andJulian and
Maddalo, grew
directly out of Shelley’s Italian experiences in the summer and fall of 1818.
The urgent source for “Lines” is a day spent in the Euganean Hills overlooking
Padua and Venice. The emotional source is Shelley’s broken heart over the death
of his child
Clara in September 1818 and Mary’s subsequent dejection and alienation. The
hills are “green isles …/ In the deep wide sea of Misery,” moments of
happiness and insight among man’s generally dark and pitiful presence. That
Shelley’s recent visit to Byron was very much in his mind is clear in his
tribute to him as the poet of Ocean. The imagery of the changing intensity of
light during the day reflects the poet’s visionary imagination. Shelley
concludes this beautiful poem with a wish for domestic calmness for himself and
those he loves and a hope that the world will recognize its brotherhood and
“grow young again.

 Like The Witch of Atlas,Epipsychidion ,
written in 1821 in Pisa, is a poem for “the esoteric few.” Drawing upon ideal
concepts of love in Dante’s Vita Nuova, as well
as in Plato and Plutarch, upon political ideas of love from Godwin, and upon his own experiences
with women, Shelley wrote Epipsychidion as
a kind of idealized autobiography of his love relationships. The immediate
impetus for the poem was Teresa (“Emilia”) Viviani, a bright, beautiful,
nineteen-year-old Italian girl who had been placed in a convent by her father
until he could arrange for her marriage. As one whose potential for perfect  love was being repressed by her father, her
situation was precisely calculated to win the sympathies of Shelley, Mary, and
Claire. In his earlier days, such a situation might have prompted Shelley to
rescue Emilia and pursue a physical union with her, but by this time he was
convinced that “the error … consist ed in seeking in a mortal image the
likeness of what is perhaps eternal.” The poem’s title refers to “the soul of my
soul” or the “soul out of my soul,” a concept of affection
Shelley had started to increase  as early
as his letters to Elizabeth Hitchener and which he had explained extra completely
in the “Essay on Love,” likely written in 1818 or 1819, Inside the “Essay on
Love,” Shelley explains the concept of the epipsyche as “a miniature … of our
complete self …, the right prototype of everything splendid or adorable that
we’re  able of conceiving as belonging to
the nature of guy.” Inside the system of cosmic symbols Shelley develops
in Epipsychidion, Emilia, Shelley’s epipsyche, is the
Sun, Shelley is the Earth, Mary, the Moon, and Claire, the Comet at the same
time as the souls of Emilia and Shelley are united, those of Mary and Claire
still have an impact on his soul.”

Shelley’s populruty after his loss of life changed into formed by way of
identical extremes of worship and hatred that he and his writings had elicited
during his life. Among the Victorians, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Kingsley, Walter Bagehot, and Ralph Waldo Emerson denigrated Shelley, and Samuel Clemens was never
able to forgive Shelley for his treatment of Harriet. Matthew Arnold issued the most memorable and destructive declaration
on Shelley: “stunning and ineffectual angel, beating inside the void his
luminous wings in vain.” But the list of those who admired him or were inspired
by way of him is longer and perhaps even greater distinguished: Benjamin
Disraeli, who created a Shelleyan protagonist in his novel Venetia (1837); Robert Browning, who in his early poem Pauline (1833)
paid tribute to Shelley as the “Sun-treader”; Alfred Tennyson, who along side different “Cambridge Apostles” argued the
merits of Shelley as opposed to Byron with Oxford debaters; William Michael
Rossetti, who edited Shelley’s works and introduced a memoir; William Butler Yeats, whose poetry well known shows the impact of Shelley’s
visionary poetics and his symbol making; H. S. Salt and Edward and
Eleanor Marx Aveling (Marx’s daughter), all of whom claimed Shelley as a
prototypical Marxist; and Bernard Shaw, who fashionable Shelley’s radicalism
and emulated his vegetarianism. In addition, Edgar Allan Poe, Algernon Charles Swinburne, George Eliot, George Lewes, and Thomas Hardy all admired Shelley and followed some of his
ideas.

Shelley’s thoughts, embodied in his verse, his prose, and his existence,
remain as a challenge to the servile reputation of authority and as a challenge
to us to achieve our maximum capability—to always aspire to higher desires for
ourselves and for society.