Introduction: of Artificial Intelligence. The Turing Machine: The

Introduction:

Alan Turing was a British mathematician and a huge part in
the development of computing and one of the main reasons we are at the stage we
are today. His research into and theorisation of the Turing machine, a
computation machine with the ability to simulate an algorithm, and the Turing
test, a test used to see if AI are truly intelligent, are very important and
influential in computing and Artificial Intelligence today. I have explained below
the main concepts Turing brought to light in more detail.

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Before the Turing Machine and during the war (Historical
Background):

 

Turing served for the allied forces during the second world
war in code breaking and cryptanalysis. Most of the code breaking he did was on
transmissions intercepted by the German navy, which was especially important as
the German navy had technology such as the U-boat that was feared by the allied
forces. Turing’s work during the war was extremely important as he helped to
improve the enigma machine, a device used to crack intercepted messages as well
as being the lead of Hut 8, a code breaking branch at Bletchley Park. His work
in code breaking led him to invent his creations and pioneer the creation of
Artificial Intelligence.

 

The Turing Machine:

 

The turing machine was a concept alan turing came up with in
1936. At the time he had named it the “a-machine”, meaning automatic machine
and its purpose was to simulate computer algorithms. Turing was only able to
come up with the idea for the machine and was not able to build it before he
died at the age of 42 in 1954. It would work by reading paper tapes that were
put into the machine and the algorithm would be simulated from there. The
theory of the Turing Machine was incredible for the time that Turing was in as
it has the ability to compute anything that a modern computer is capable of.

 

The Turing Test:

 

The Turing Test is another part of Turing’s research and
work.  This is a test given to Artificial
Intelligence to see if it is truly intelligent by appearing to be human-like or
if it is not and can be seen by people to be an AI. Alan Turing came up with
the idea for the test in 1950, which is comprised of a human, also known as the
“interrogator”, interacting with another human and an AI. The interrogator will
ask questions to both the AI and the other human without knowing which is which
and has to determine which is the AI. If the interrogator answers incorrectly
then the AI is deemed to be intelligent and has passed the test. This method is
still used today to determine whether new AI can be told apart from human
beings.

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