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Present Day
Management Theories

            Management
basically refers to the set of activities such as decision making,
organization, planning and leading with the objective of accomplishing the set
goals of an organization in a manner that is effective as well as efficient.
Over time, there have been theories that explain management as a practice and
this paper seeks to provide insight into modern day theories of management.
These are a set of ideologies, which provide general rules as to how businesses
and organizations can be managed (Ssali, 2016). Contemporary
management theories however vary with traditional ones in that they have a
tendency to account for as well as make interpretation of the fast changing
state of the organizational environment that exist today.

Contingency Theory

            Contingency
theory is one of the present day management theories that are being adopted
today. It has the assertion that once a manager makes a certain decision, they
have to take into account all the conditions surrounding the present situation
of their organization in terms of both internally and externally (Donaldson,
2005).
They then act on the specific conditions that are important to the prevailing
situation that is at hand. This is generally a strategy that states “It
depends”. It addresses vital contingencies for organizations which include
technology, government, distributors and suppliers, customers and distributors,
and unions.

Chaos Theory

            Chaos
theory is also another example of present day management theories. Despite the
random and chaotic nature of the events that occur today, they are reflective
of what happens in organizations as well. This is in contrary to the fact that
managers have for the longest time operated on the notion that organizational
events should always proceed in a control manner. This rather new theory posits
that events are in fact seldom controlled as opposed to what managers seek to
attain. Supporters of this theory draw conclusions from biological systems in a
bid to explain what it actually entails and means (Davies, 2003). They suggest that
as systems naturally become more intricate, they are bound to be even more
susceptible or prone to cataclysmic scenarios and therefore they have to
utilize more energy to sustain this intricacy. Using more energy consequently
requires that they get more structure in order to retain their stability. This
process continues to a point when the particular system raptures, integrates
with another intricate system or even completely shatters.

Systems Theory

            Systems
theory is credited for the elaborate impact it has had on the science of
management and getting a better understanding of organizations. A system is a
set of parts that are unified to achieve a similar goal. With one part of the
system removed, the entire process is altered. A system therefore has input,
output, processes and outcomes. These four aspects are the basis upon which
systems give feedback (Langton, 2005). In the perspective
of an organization, the first aspect which is input can be likened to resources
like manpower, funds, technology or raw materials. These then go through the
second aspect, a process, in which they are organized, controlled and agitated
until they achieve the goals of the organization. Output can be in terms of
things like productivity. The feedback comes from the information obtained from
customers about the products or from a department such as the HR which handles
the customers. Societal impact, government intervention and technology also
constitute feedback that may be derived from the broader environment (Sheldrake,
2002).
This entire system model is connotative of any system that makes up an
organization.

 

Team Building Theory

            Team
building theory of management is based on the concept using a team to get
things done more efficiently. It focuses on how powerful it is to make a
connection in a group of people who are working for the same ultimate goal. It
however does not dispute the possibility of how daunting a task this can be
given the magnitude of such an objective as well as the challenges of handling
a number of people who react differently based on factors such as their
personality, desire to achieve the set goals and ability to work with others.
The theory is an organized manner of understanding various processes,
situations and behaviors. It is not a single theory but rather a calumniation
of several sub-theories that are centered on teamwork as their area of focus.
They include Bruce Tuckman’s model of team stages, hierarchy of needs theory,
Leadership theory by John Adair, Theory of team roles by Belbin, Color theory
by Carl Jung and X and Y theory by Douglas McGregor (Ssali, 2016). These are not the
only theories on teamwork that fall under the broader category of team building
theory of management but rather a select sample. Technically speaking, any
theory that talks on team building warrants to be categorized under this
theory.

Analysis and
Application

            The
effects of these theories on today’s companies and business decisions is a lot.
They impact the management of companies and organizations by making other
professionals such as writers and consultants assist managers in looking at the
organizations they run from a wider perspective. Such new perspectives help
managers in interpreting events and patterns that occur in these organizations (Langton,
2005).
The managers are able to recognize the components of their businesses and how
they interact. Prior to the existence of these theories, managers tended to
look at just one component and focus on it leaving all the others unattended
hence they underperformed. This is especially the importance of the systems
theory.

            The
theories also act as complements to management practices. Business owners
therefore are able to mix what they practice with what is recommended by these
theories to come up with business models. This is the product of two components
which result in a well-structured model. For instance, the owner of a business
will usually study and adopt strategies of management because flexibility is
essential in sustaining such a business model, which as aforementioned is the
product of the practice and the theories (Ssali, 2016). Moving on, the
owner will need to include some of the components of management theory because
the business will be growing. This is done in order to formalize decision
making in the business in the long run and the leadership qualities of the
business management. This is how management theories can influence both
companies and business decisions simultaneously. This is not to imply that the
two have to happen together but rather, the theories can impact either or even
both as indicated in this unique case.

            On
a more specific front, these theories help in achieving overall efficiency with
regard to management. Taking the team building theory of management for
instance, managers are supposed to understand that good practices in managing
either as a result of their own personal research or from education crates a
business model that is capable of increasing the productivity of their
employees. It can even reduce the rate of employee turnover or rather improve
retention rates. Such knowledge can be obtained from team building theory of
management since it highlights the best ways to create a team that is effective
and will not find a reason to want to leave a give business or organization (Langton,
2005).
This affects the decisions that such a manager would make relative to his/her
business.

Conclusion

            Management
theories have continued to prove that they are beneficial to organizations and
businesses in present day. They are a guide to the individuals tasked with the
mandate of leading such entities as the managers. More managers are turning to
management theories in a bid to succinctly understand what management fully
entails. In an era that is marked with aggressive competition in the business
world, turning to such alternatives in order to capitalize on what they have to
offer is important. Theories on management are important and provide much
needed guidance on how to manage businesses especially in this day and time.