Researchers of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were exclusively used

Researchers have made
rapid strides on studying overall physical activity amongst humans. When
examining physical activity, the diversity of studies on the topic contributes to
multiple facets of physical activity and exercise (Karageorhis, Priest, 2012). Prior
to the mid-1990’s, studies relating music to exercise were scanty (13) which
was initially examined by (Karageorhis, Terry, 1997), and reexamined a second
time in 2011 (Karageorhis, Priest, 2012). In addition to the timely growth in
the amount of studies, a growth in truth caused by carelessness of a multitude
of variables has come. Music selection is imperative when being coupled with
exercise. Tunes or melodies which are personal favorites (that which the
subject would individually choose) or those that arouse certain expressions stimulate
explicit responses. Naturally, anticipated degrees of endurance, power, and
strength demonstrate this (Biagini, Brown, Coburn, Judelson, Statler, Bottaro,
Tran, Longo, 2012)., Typically induced, these physical testimonies of musical motivation
are correlated to psychological benefits

Specifically,
musical stimulation has been revealed to produce benefits in physical
performance (Jarraya, Chtourou, Souissi). Studies regarding this subject have
been performed on subjects at Universities, and henceforth subjects are aged in
a range from 18-21 years of age. This will be an examination of studies
involving subjects that fit this criterion. This unique stimulation touches
upon many aspects of physical functioning that when combined accumulatively
produce noticeable variations from a control subject (not exposed to music). My
paper evaluates and compares various studies performed on the subject of
musical stimulus during exercise and the physiological affects this stimulus
encourages.

In the study “The
Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained
Athletes” (Jarraya, Chtourou, Souissi, 2012), twelve male subjects were
selected and studied regarding the effects of adding high tempo music (>
120-140 bpm). The focal points of this study were the resulting heart rates and
ratings of perceive exertion. Borg’s Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were
exclusively used in all studies referred to in this paper to assess these
subjects. Two sessions of exercise were required to assess benefits of musical
stimulus, one with the variable and one without. In attempt to mimic the
circumstances that a typical athlete would endure, exposure to music was only
allowed during the ten-minute warm-up period prior to performing a Wingate
test. The Wingate test had subjects at one point pedal as fast as possible in
order to produce peak and mean powers during the test. Heart rates were
measured throughout testing, and ratings of perceived exertion were evaluated
using the Borg’s scale. Statistical analysis revealed that musical stimulus did
not affect subject heart rate or their perceived exertion. However, it did
reflect a substantial increase in peak (4.1+/-3.6) and mean (4.0+/-3.70) power
ratings. The results of this study suggest beneficial effects of musical
stimulation during warm-up performances.

Multiple effects of music have been evaluated
through many different experiments and studies. Reoccurring themes of lower
RPE, as well as increases in performance such as running longer distances or
generating higher velocities or power were present in most articles that were
evaluated. Some even referred to the addition of music to exercise as a “legal
performance enhancing drug”. Although not all claims are supported when
comparing two of the studies examined, it should be noted that no negative
outcomes such as a decrease in performance or a higher RPE was ever the result
when music was included with exercise. This proves that athletes or individuals
should surely consider making the addition of music to their exercise regimen
if they desire to potentially increase their performance.