Responsibility ethnic cleansings in Rwanda and Yugoslavia. Kofi

Responsibility to Protect’ was a
report presented in International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
(ICISS) which was developed by Government of Canada in December 2001. The
development of ‘Responsibility to Protect’ has a long tragic history; the
humanitarian atrocities committed in Rwanda, Yugoslavia and Kosovo in 1990s
generated a new debate on the role of International community on the prevention
of the use of force, violation of human rights and maintenance of peace. In Rwanda,
800,000 members of Tutsi minority were murdered from April to July 1994, while
in Yugoslavia by 1995 almost 100,000 minority Muslim Serbs were killed. What
was unique about these humanitarian crises was that these were deliberate
actions of recognized government of sovereign states. The gross humanitarian catastrophic
events witnessed in this period changed the entire approach of International
community towards State Sovereignty.  Earlier
to these events the State sovereignty was considered absolute and intervention
of any sort was considered violation of International customary law. The State sovereignty
was unbreacheble therefore the International
community was unable to stop these genocides and ethnic cleansings in Rwanda and
Yugoslavia. Kofi Annan the then Secretary-General of United Nation in
Millennium Report of 2000, expressed dissatisfaction over the inabilities of
Security council and International Community at large for their insufficient
role in deterring these humanitarian crisis. Kofi Anna in the same session
famously In response to these
challenges and possible threats, member states in United Nation World Summit
2005 endorsed and accepted Responsibility to protect, whereby all member states
formally acknowledged the responsibility their respective state to ensure the
welfare and protection of their population as a pre condition to Absolute or unbreacheble
State Sovereignty.

If a state
is unwilling or unable to protect its population then according to R2P,
International Community has ‘residual responsibility’ or ‘shared responsibility’
to play its role in ending or discouraging crime against humanity, ethnic
cleansings, war crimes and genocides. It aims to create a secure world free of
any humanitarian crises.

Thesis Statement: Although R2P was a genuine effort by the
United Nation to assist the humanitarian causes more effectively and efficiently
but sill it has failed to end the problem of deadlock in the United Nation
Security Council. R2P at the cost of just one veto is considered void.  The idealistic notion of ‘Shared responsibility’
under R2P is ineffective because States still put their Individual Interest
ahead and makes no compromise to it.