STATEMENT describes various sections according to the above

STATEMENT
OF THE PROBLEM:

E-GOVERNANCE
IN INDIA: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

OBJECTIVES
OF THE STUDY

 1. To provide an overview of e-governance.

2. To examine the scope of e-governance

 3. To map e-governance initiative in India.

4. To evaluate the major challenges and
future prospects of e-governance in India

5. To make analyse and provide
concluding remarks

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

 The present paper is divided into five
sections based on secondary data received from various sources. The present
paper describes various sections according to the above mentioned objectives.

I.    
Introduction

E-Governance
is in essence, the application of Information and communication technology to
government functioning in order to create ‘Simple, Moral, Accountable,
Responsive and Transparent’ (SMART) governance. E-governance is beyond the
scope of e-government. While e-government is defined as a mere delivery of
government services and information to the public using electronic means,
e-governance allows direct participation of constituents in government
activities. E-Governance is the development,
deployment and enforcement of the policies, laws and regulations necessary to
support the functioning of a Knowledge Society as well as of e-Government.

E-governance,
meaning ‘electronic governance’ is using information and communication technologies
(ICTs) at various levels of the government and the public sector and beyond,
for the purpose of enhancing governance (Bedi, Singh and Srivastava, 2001).

According
to UNESCO “E-governance is the public sector’s use of information and
communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service
delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and
making government more accountable, transparent and effective. E-governance
involves new styles of leadership, new ways of debating and deciding policy and
investment, new ways of accessing education, new ways of listening to citizens
and new ways of organizing and delivering information and services.
E-governance is generally considered as a wider concept than e-government,
since it can bring about a change in the way citizens relate to governments and
to each other. E-governance can bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both
in terms of citizen needs and responsibilities. Its objective is to engage,
enable and empower the citizen.”

In
this light, E-governance is not just about government web site and e-mail. It
is not just about service delivery over the Internet. It is not just about
digital access to government information or electronic payments. It will change
how citizens relate to governments as much as it changes how citizens relate to
each other. It will bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of
needs and responsibilities.

II.  E- Governance and its Scope

E-Government offers a number of potential benefits
to citizens. Ndou (2004) stated E-Governance
facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved
interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to
information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal
operations and improves performance of government departments while helping all
sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum
ease of use. By employing online transactions, government processes become more
streamlined, efficient and less dependent on human interaction. Also the cost
of processing transactions is reduced online, resulting in great savings. Interconnecting various ministries and
government departments electronically to share information helps them provide
better governance. Through one
integrated e-Government portal, citizens and businesses can avail of various
government services, conduct online transactions, access information and
interact with various government bodies without standing in long queues,
waiting for office hours or handling lot of paperwork, and thus save time and
money. 

Types of Government Interaction in
e-governance.

·        
G2G: Government to Government 

·        
G2C: Government to Citizen 

·        
G2B: Government to Business

·        
G2E: Government to Employee

G2G – Government to Government: G2G deals with those
activities that take place between different government organizations/agencies.
Many of these activities are aimed at improving the efficiency and
effectiveness of overall government operations.

Government
to Citizen (G2C): G2C are those activities in which the government provides
one-stop, on-line access to information and services to citizens. G2C
applications enable citizens to ask questions of government agencies and
receive answers; file income taxes; pay taxes; renew driver’s licenses; pay
traffic tickets; change their address; and make appointments for vehicle
emission inspections etc. In addition, government may disseminate information
on the web; provide downloadable forms online; help citizens find employment;
provide tourism and recreation information; provide advice about health and
safety issues etc.

Government
to Business (G2B): In G2B, the government deals with businesses such as
suppliers using the Internet and other ICTs. G2B includes two two-way
interactions and transactions: government-to-business and
business-to-government (B2G). B2G refers to businesses selling products and
services to government. Two key G2B areas are e-procurement and auctioning of
government surpluses

Government
to Employees (G2E): Government is one of the main employers of labour in India
and as such engages in a two-way interaction with its employees on a regular
basis. Use of ICT tools helps in making these interactions fast and efficient
on the one hand and increasing satisfaction levels of employees on the other.

III.       
E-
Governance initiative in India – An overview

IT revolution, a word-wide phenomenon today has
stirred societies and governments to embark upon IT-based social, educational
and administrative processes. India, as one of the pioneering countries in I.T
revolution has made a great stride in e-governance.

Table 1.1 E-Governance Projects in India

State/Union Territory

Initiatives covering departmental
automation, user charge collection, delivery of policy/programme information
and delivery of entitlements

Andhra Pradesh

e- Seva, CARD, VOICE, MPHS, FAST, e-
COPS, Saukaryam, Online Transaction processing

Bihar

Sales Tax Administration Management
Information

Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh Infotech Promotion
Society, Treasury office, e-linking project

Delhi

Automatic Vehicle Tracking System,
Computerisation of website of RCS office, Electronic Clearance System,
Management Information System for Education etc

Goa

Dharani Project

Gujarat

Mahiti Shakti, request for Government
documents online, Form book online, G R book online, census online, tender
notice.

Haryana

Nai Disha

Himachal Pradesh

Lok Mitra

Karnataka

Bhoomi, Khajane, Kaveri, Mahiti, Smart
Card System

Kerala

e-Srinkhala, RDNet, Fast, Reliable, Instant,
Efficient Network for the Disbursement of Services (FRIENDS)

Madhya Pradesh

Gyandoot, Gram Sampark, Smart Card in
Transport Department, Computerization MP State Agricultural Marketing Board
(Mandi Board) etc

Maharashtra

SETU, Online Complaint Management
System—Mumbai

Rajasthan

Jan Mitra, RajSWIFT, Lokmitra,
RajNIDHI

Tamilnadu

Rasi Maiyams–Kanchipuram; Application
forms related to public utility, tender notices and display

Arunachal Pradesh

Community Information Center

Manipur, Meghalaya

the Meghalaya website under schemes
related to

Mizoram & Nagaland

social welfare, food civil supplies
and consumer affairs, housing transport etc.

Source:
http://www.ignou.ac.in/upload/B2U2cit-002.pdf

IV.       
Challenges
Of E-Governance In India

Many challenges are
faced by e-government as scholars such as Malik, Dhillon & Verma (2014)
have highlighted them and are discussed as follows:

1.
Poverty: Accessing Internet is a
costly affair for the poor who struggle for their livelihood in developing
countries like India. Required infrastructure in the form of installing the
necessary telephone lines needed for internet or email access is equally
unaffordable in most poor countries.

2.
Technical illiteracy: There is general lack of technical
literacy as well as literacy in countries like India.

 3. Language Dominance: The dominance of
English on the internet constrains the access of non-English speaking
population. In the case of India, 95 percent of the population does not speak
English. Due to such overwhelming dominance of English over these communication
channels, computers and the internet are quite useless in Indian villages.

4.
Unawareness: There is general lack of awareness
regarding benefits of E-Governance as well as the process involved in
implementing successful G-C, G-G and G-B projects.

5.
Inequality: Inequality in gaining access to public
sector services between various sections of citizens, especially between urban
and rural communities, between the educated and illiterate, and between the
rich and poor.

6.
Infrastructure: Lack of necessary infrastructure like
electricity, internet, technology and ways of communications will affect the
speed which delays the implementation.

7.
Impediments for the Re-Engineering process: Implementation
of E-Governance projects require lots of restructuring in administrative
processes, redefining of administrative procedures and formats which finds the
resistance in almost all the departments at all the levels.

Future
Prospects of E-Governance in India

 Vision and Objectives of the Twelfth Five
Year Plan (2012-17)

a. To deliver all Government services in
electronic mode so as to make the Government process transparent, citizen
centric, efficient and easily accessible.

b. To break information silos and create
shareable resources for all Government entities

c. To deliver both informational and
transactional government services over mobiles and promote innovation in mobile
governance

d. To build Shared Service Platforms to
accelerate the adoption of E-Governance and reduce the ?cycle time? of
E-Governance project implementation

e. To strengthen and improve
sustainability of the existing projects through innovative business models and
through continuous infusion of advanced technology

f. To promote ethical use of technology
and data and to create a safe and secure E-Governance cyber world

 g. To create an ecosystem that promotes
innovation in ICT for Governance and for applications that can benefit the
citizens

 h. To better target the delivery of welfare
schemes of the Central and State Governments

i. To reduce asymmetry in information
availability, accessibility and ability to utilize the information

j. To increase the all round awareness
and create mechanisms that promotes and encourages citizen engagement.

 k. To make available as much data as possible
in the public domain for productive use by the citizens.

Targets
of the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) with respect to E-Governance

 a) A National Institute for E-Governance (NIG)
would be setup as an autonomous State of the Art National Institute. NIG will
also train at least 50 employees from Central Government per year on Project
Management Certification.

b) An E-Governance Innovation and
R&D Fund will be created to give adequate impetus to innovation in
E-Governance and M-Governance.

c) Electronic Delivery of Services (EDS)
Bill will be implemented.

d) Shared Services Platforms for
e-Payment, GIS, call centre, etc. will be created.

e) An apps store will be created to
promote development of large scale E-Governance and M Governance applications

 f)
At least one person per family in 50% of the families will be targeted to
provide basic IT training in the XII Plan period.

g) Cyber Security will be a major focus
area during the Twelfth Five Year Plan Period.

h) Training on Basic IT Skills will be
introduced systematically for the existing and all new entrants into Government
service.

V.  Recommendations

·        
Government has to adopt number of
initiatives to eradicate ICT illiteracy and emphasized the need for
establishing database centres.

·        
Government has to introduce the benefits
of E-Government to the individuals in rural and urban areas and even among
civil services sectors which will result in the demand of E-Government facilities.

·        
Government should launch new initiatives
throughout increase number of computer centres and kiosks and provide more IT
training programs which could result in building information-based society.

 To conclude, the purpose of implementing e-
governance is to improve governance processes and outcomes with a view to
improving the delivery of public services to citizens. E-Government is a
channel through which the government interacts with its citizens (e-Citizens
and e-Services), improves public service delivery and processes
(e-Administration), and builds external interactions (e-Society).