Systemic international conventions, germ line modification is forbidden

Systemic
Academic Review:

When
the prospective of the CRISPR-Cas9 system was realized ethical issues were
raised about the possibility of creating inheritable and permanent changes in
the genome of human embryos and gametes (Baltimore et al., 2015; Lanphier et
al., 2015). In reproduction, three types of benefits may be illustrious it
increased knowledge and understanding of developmental processes help to improve
medical technologies, correction of defects and diseases in future children. (Sugarman, 2015). Scientific community argued that it
is unethical to deny a technology that would eradicate critical genetic
diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (Gallagher J, et al 2015).
In many countries and in a
many international conventions, germ line modification is forbidden (Araki and Ishii, 2014). Gene editing will increase
the risk for the health of the future offspring compared with the presented
alternatives (Lander,
2015). People who point to
discarding embryos may choose the solution of the alteration of germ cells. Matters
of social justice may also arise. (Newson and Wrigley, 2015).).

Off-target mutations are accidental
mutations in the genome. They occur when CRISPR-Cas9 cleaves DNA sequences
within the genome other than target DNA sequences. These mutations can be
deleterious. Off-target mutations can cause cell alteration or death (Zhang, et al 2014).  The
charge of germline editing technology is very high to the amount that families
coming from wealthy countries could afford it. The developing countries will
not be afford the cost of this technology. This may grant an advantage to
children born in developed countries. (Yang A ,et al 2015). The
genetic improvement of a specific manifestation could cause considerable
physical and mental health to the offspring since their look is imposed on them
through a way other than blood relationship (Ishi T, et al 2015).
The public objection about the ethical breach of human embryo genome editing
could hinder the promising area of therapeutic development .(Lanphier E, et al 2015) CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology
to an embryo is very risky. Researchers may not be in a position to determinethe
effect of such procedures before birth. (Lanphier E, et al 2015).

An important ethical issue in
research is that benefits must be larger than risks. The application of CRISPR/Cas9
technique involves risks. A high rate of off target effects has been found in human
cells but low in zebrafish and mice. ( Hwang WY, et al. 2013 ; Yang H, et
al. 2013)  Important problem
is the efficient safe delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 into cell or tissues that are
hard to transfect. The scattering of gene drive trait may be difficult to
control. Some scientists have warned about the risks of unintentional release in the environment of
experimental organisms modified using gene drives. (Oye KA et al. 2014) This demands careful assessment of each potential
application and the need of regulatory norms. (Oye KA et al. 2014)

The efficacy of
CRISPR/Cas9 technique to obtain accurate genetic modifications makes more complicated
to identify a genetically modified organism once outside the lab and also to
regulate this organisms in the market.  (Ledford H 2015 et al). Another problem is the regulation of patenting. The
practice of patenting may create litigations. There have been argument and
frictions among biotechnological companies over patenting CRISPR/Cas9 for beneficial
use in humans. Patenting creates the ethical issue that puts the emphasis in
profit giving too much power to biotechnological companies.