Table 6.3. The dispute resolution process was another

 

Table 6.3 presents the
sources of complexity for the technical dimension that are similar for the
studied projects. As shown in the table no issue was found in all five of the
projects. The delivery method of the projects has been mentioned already, but
it is more apparent in this dimension. Projects were conducted using DB, one
source of complexity found on the projects was that the delivery method
impacted how the contract was formed. Some of the common issues with the
contract formation were determining how the contract was viewed by all of the
parties, who was responsible for what portion of the project, and the disparity
between confidential and public information. The delivery method and the size
of the project contributed to the majority of the sources of complexity shown
in Table 6.3. The dispute resolution process was another issue arising in the
projects. Once again, DOT’s familiarity with DB may have reduced the complexity
with the dispute resolution process. Two other sources that were directly
affected by the contract language were quality control issues and the design
process. Since the contractor was ultimately responsible for the quality and
design the owner’s had to invent ways to monitor these processes. The major
focus of the quality control efforts were figuring out ways to analyse quality
problems, ensuring quality was not sacrificed because of the accelerated
schedules, and using oversight programs to verify the projects were being
constructed adequately. The design process also limited the direct impact the
owner’s had on the physical design of the project. Many of the project’s
designs encountered extensive limitations through existing conditions making
the designs complex. Owners also had to create ways to monitor the design
quality and determine how to conduct value engineering and constructability
review sessions to verify the design adhered to the standards set forth.
Internally, the selected delivery method also affected the structure of the
owner’s organization. Transit technology implementation is the last source
found on the projects and added to the complexity of these projects. It was the
first time that it was used on the reconstruction project used it for extensive
rerouting of traffic on surrounding routes due to the full shutdowns of the
highway. Both of these projects noted that the transit technology added to the
overall complexity of the technical dimension.

 

Project

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Delivery
method
impacted
contract
formation

Complex
dispute
resolution
process

 

Design process,
quality, existing
conditions, VE’s
& CR’s

Delivery
method
altered
internal
structure

Scope
issues

Transit
technology
implementation

Quality
control
issues

 

 

Segment

X

X

X

 

 

 

X

Reconstruction

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Intermodal

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

 

Table
6.3 – Project Similarities Contributing to Technical Complexity

 

6.1.4 Context Dimension

 

The context dimension found
that many of the sources of complexity are similar for the projects studied.
Table 6.4 displays all of the sources that were found on multiple projects and
this dimension clearly has more than any of the others. Some of the defined
factors have been lumped together based on impact and management complexity to
condense the results of the context dimension. 12 similar issues were found on
the projects and six of those were found to be on all of the projects studied.
Political issues are the first source occurring throughout all of the projects.
Project participants noted that political involvement was very apparent and
could be either positive or negative. In some instances the politicians were driving
the project and expectations needed to be kept in check while in others they were
trying to halt construction. The second source appearing in all five projects
is titled local group’s impact which is comprised of the public, jurisdictions,
and local agency challenges. The public was one factor that needed to be
managed due to project expectations, approval, design decisions, and overall
apprehension. Multiple jurisdictions and local agencies were also seen on some
of the projects that required management resources. Also included in the local
group’s impact source are social, demographic, and project acceptance factors.
These were not seen on all of the projects, but are included in this source
because they provided similar management challenges since they are highly
correlated with the public aspect.

Utilities have arisen in the
previous dimension concerning their potential impact on the cost, schedule, and
design of the projects. The scope of all projects encountered many utility
relocation and coordination challenges. Some of the projects noted that the
condensed timeframe increased the amount of resources needed to deal with
utility challenges. Another source of complexity found on all of the projects
was environmental issues. This source includes a lot of issues found through
the case studies including hazardous remediation, wetlands replacement,
environmental clearances, use of sustainable/recycled materials, and general
environmental impact concerns. The last source found on all of the projects
studied is the impact the project had on land changes. This source includes
elements such as land acquisition through condemnation and changing land
values. Once again it is important to note that not all of these issues were
prevalent on all of the projects. The remaining six sources of complexity were
not seen on all of the studied projects, but provided management complexity. A
summary of the common issues found is presented below:

1.                 
Creation
of new and alteration of existing emergency routes

2.                 
Extensive
traffic control plans that include techniques such as retiming of signals,
visualization techniques, and overall rerouting of traffic

3.                 
Legislative
approval for alternate delivery method use and legal limitations that were
altered in order for the selected delivery method to be successful

4.                 
Inclement
weather causing delays

5.                 
Intermodal
incorporation

6.                 
Business
access programs

The above context dimension
has drawn a lot of similarities between the projects which is expected with the
immense amount of external factors facing the management teams for the studied
projects.  Future complex projects should
take note of the similarities found within this dimension and be mindful of the
project specific sources of complexity.

x

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