Table trade, Ghana’s king was extremely powerful. He

Table of contentsTable of contents……………………………………………….1 Chapter 11 title page…………………………………………2Chapter 11 big idea questions…………………………….3Chapter 12 title page…………………………………………4Chapter 12 big idea questions…………………………….5Chapter 13 title page…………………………………………6Chapter 13 big idea questions…………………………….7Chapter 14 title page…………………………………………8Chapter 14 big idea questions…………………………….9As for vegetation, the region of West Africa includes deserts, while the central and southern areas have both savannas and very wet rainforest regions. Africa is the hottest continent in the world! The climate is pretty extreme. Temperatures in the lowlands of West Africa are high throughout the year, but one day it can be 18°C, but in the Sahel, temperatures can reach above 40°C. Some main physical features include the Sahara Desert and the Niger River.How did the geography of West Africa influence settlement and trade? Well, traders from North Africa that were crossing the Sahara spread the practice of Islam. They also brought needed goods. Plus, the Sahara provided protection most of the time because this desert is very difficult to cross. This way they were safe.Ghana, was one of a few trading areas that ruled over other large areas. People often refer to them as empires, or kingdoms. How did these first kingdoms develop? Actually, the rulers of some trading cities in West Africa became very wealthy by collecting taxes from goods that were bought and sold to them. So, the kingdoms gained popularity.Jenne-Jenno was a forgotten city in West Africa that nobody knew about. However, the archaeologists excavations proved that cities did exist in West Africa before outsiders came and introduction the concept. They even found evidence of trade, craftsmanship and wealth! People did not believe them, but they proved them wrong. Because of his control in trade, Ghana’s king was extremely powerful. He was the head of army, and had a final say in any justice. He also lead religious worship. The army consisted of the regular army, the reserve forces, and the elite soldiers. Also, a known fun fact about royalty in Ghana, is that the number of feathers on headdress indicated their rank. Trans-Saharan trade linked Mediterranean economies that liked demanding gold. They would supply salt to the sub-Saharan economies. Wherever gold was, gold production and trade were exceptionally important activities. Camel caravans from North Africa carried bars of salt and other goods across the Sahara to trading centers like Djenne and Timbuktu on the Niger River. Some items for which the salt was traded include gold, ivory, slaves, skins, kola nuts, and assorted spices. Ghana fell because of invasion and many conflicts. Then, Mali rose to victory under the leadership of a king. His name was Sundiata. Later, another great leader named Mansa Musa extended their empire. The Songhai empire, weakened eventually by a few political struggles, then they went into decline.By now Islam had reached West Africa. A few Muslim traders and missionaries brought, or spread, Islam to Ghana. However, the king of Ghana did not convert to Islam. Neither did most of the people, at first. Although, the king did let the Muslims to build settlements where they wanted.Mansa Musa’s wealth and presence during his hajj helped him gain acceptance. He did this by paying in gold. He also would give gifts to those who provided for him during his hajj. West African history, beliefs, and values are still carried through history, and is with us still today. This is so because of oral and written traditions. Way, way back, West Africans transmitted knowledge orally to many generations, for generations. Then, in medieval times, is when written traditions came to play. Now, through all that time, a few things might have gotten mixed up, but that is just because they have been around for so long. Music has always been very important to West African culture. There are so many functions that can be used with music. One is call and response. This is when a leader starts, and the chorus responds. A few more places music is shared are at places like weddings and ceremonies, or even funerals. Music not only is shared but can express feelings as well. Therefore, there are many functions to music.