The that new wars need to be known

The  greatest victory is that which requires no
battle” ( The Art of War; Sun Tzu ) Yet, the  

   typical
concept of a war implies an armed conflict between political entities to obtain
peace.

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This is the shape taken by the two greatest wars
in history, opposing two political blocks and

mobilizing over 700 million soldiers/troops
together. However, in recent decades new forms of  combat have emerged. The cold war, for example
has applied unprecedented forms of battle while conflicts of decolonization
expand their horizons to new shapes and actors. More recently, wars have
further evolved, adopting new shapes and aspects which fascinate the media.

This transforms terrorism into today’s most infamous form of war. “New Wars” is
an expression that represents warfare in the Post-Cold war era.

New Wars is a term that Mary Kaldor developed.

Mary Kaldor is a professor at the London school of economics. She is an
author’s who’s books study the different aspects of war. Throughout the 1980’s
and the 1990’s, notably in Africa and Eastern Europe, new forms of violence
began to prevail. Terrorism was described under the term “low intensity”
conflict by U.S military during the cold war. What differentiates the cold war
from the previous ones? First of all, cold wars distinguish themselves by their
nature as they are based on indirect conflict rather than physical combat such
as shooting and bombing. Whereas during WWI and WWII, there has been direct
armed conflict between 2 political entities, the Cold War opposed 2 nations,
the Americans and the Soviets with no set battle-ground. While the United
States functioned on the basis of a democratic government and its economy on
free enterprise, the Soviet Union was a communist State where property and
production are controlled by a single party. The opposition of the democratic
system and the communist system engaged the respective nations in a conflict
involving several spheres of society: economic, political, cultural Old wars
were fought by armed forces of states. New Wars are fought by a mix of non- state
and state actors. Kaldor states that new wars need to be known in terms of
today’s process of globalization ( Mary Kaldor New and Old War). Mary Kaldor
defines old war as a traditional warfare, where conflicts are usually between
interstates, these states play an important role in running and funding the
war.

According to Mary Kaldor, “new wars” were not in
fact “new”. What’s different from ‘old wars’ and ‘new wars’ are that
globalization and technology are growing. Kaldor states that that the war in
Iraq is indeed a ‘ new kind of war’ and uses new technologies like satellite system.New
Wars are the wars of the era of globalization, usually, they happen in places
that were significantly weakened. New wars are the wars of the era of
globalization, usually they happen in places that were significantly weakned.

Also, old wars and new wars were not fought for the same reasons. Kaldor stated
the differences between the old wars and new wars by stating for what reasons the
conflict happened ( Methods, goals, finance , actors).Old wars were fought by
regular armies from different states,new wars are  a combination of non-state and state actors.

Old wars were fought for geo political matter ( socialism or democracy),
whereas , new wars were fought for ethnic , religious or tribal reasons. In old
wars, the method of pursuing war was taking over territory across military
means. Violence was used towards civilians to control territory rather than
enemy forces.  Kaldor stated that the
forms of finance were different in old wars and new wars. Old wars were mainly
financed by states (tax). New wars , especially weaker states tax revenue is falling
which created new forms of finance that include kidnapping, smuggling diamonds,
drugs etc… The most common criticism of ‘new wars’ discusses that new wars
are not new. It can be said that the Cold war made it hard to analyze ‘small
wars’, many of the features of new wars related with weak states are found in
early modern period and that occurrences like mass rape, banditry forced the
population to move. Many of the same feature of new wars are found in previous
wars. It can be argued that there are some new elements. The main elements are
of course globalization and technology, which has made it a symmetrical war
(war between opponents that have the same armory) An example of a symmetrical
war is the first Gulf war between Iran and Iraq.

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