The world now fell like very defeated in
Posted On May 12, 2019
The World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council in the recent years has identified some challenges inside of the panorama of globalization respect that the geopolitics, these challenge consist in total of seven, which are (1) Economic warfare, (2) The geopoliticization of trade talk, (3) State Capitalism 2.0, (4) Competition for gated markets, not natural resources, (5) The survival of the biggest and hollowing out of the periphery, (6) China`s infrastructure-driven alliances, (7) The decline of resources and increasing population .Each challenge was made for important members of the subjects and institutions as Global Agenda Council and Geo-economics, The concept of geopolitics is change the global vision about the topics as; (1) economy, (2) global power, (3) global governance, (4) and the relationships between the actors and the last three concepts, also the tensions between the old powers, when we talk about the old powers, we always refer of course the classical examples of countries how United States, Russia, United Kingdom and in the recent years China, it is possible say that these countries once owns of world now fell like very defeated in a new panorama where they have a little control about the Geo-economics and Globalization. The concept of Geo-economics some authors refers how the antithesis and the greatest triumph of economic globalization, this dependency of many countries in the global economy result in close market for themselves. We can see that the many countries are focusing in the advantageous situations to improve his benefits and independence of the other countries, examples as these, The United States look for the energy independence, China wants more local consumerism, Germany look for that his economy will be independent of European Union, Russia as always try to dominate the global market with China against of United States . Neither we need forget the different global phenomenon how the emigration , refugees and wars not only in the classic sense if not in the new stages as economic. The present essay or report have as purpose to make a scheme of the challenges of geo-economics and globalization for Nation-States, Companies and International Organizations. Before the start, we need know that in each story, there are winners and losers, it is easy identify the winners, we can say that this label of winners, we can give the countries that are capable to draw his own policies in the global scenario, examples of these China, the United States, The European Union, and, of course in the other side we have the losers, this label we can give to the International Organizations, Enterprises and Private Donors, because they do not have the capacity to have autonomy as the countries before mentioned, but this classification of winners and losers are right?, where do they leave the global society? that they suffer all effects of decisions of these powerful entities.We need understand that the new world order imply a lot of changes in the setting of the current situation for that it is necessary the analysis of the principal seven challenges that the globalization have to in front of her in relation with the global control, nation-state, identity and belonging, social and economic challenges, these challenge could be divided in order to attend and easy understanding his study, and they are;• Economic warfare.• The geopoliticization of trade talk • State Capitalism 2.0 • Competition for gated markets, not natural resources • The survival of the biggest and hollowing out of the periphery • China`s infrastructure-driven alliances • The decline of resources and increasing populationThese seven challenge, how I indicate in the reference was created for the world economic forum. (See the first reference in the text)Economic Warfare; to understand what is this? it is necessary establish one general concept. The Economic Warfare, consist in the economic measures that some countries use against to other countries, with the goal to reduce his political, military and economic power, inside the concept of Economic Warfare also we can find that these measures many times the countries take in consideration to obligate a others countries change his policies and behavior to conduct normal relations in the global scenario. Some common measure of Economic Warfare are trade embargoes, boycotts, sanctions, tariff discrimination, the freezing of capital assets, and the suspension of aid, the prohibition of investment and other capital flows, and expropriation . The current situation in the world with the United States, Europe, China, Japan, Russia and other developed economies in relation with the challenges in certain areas how fiscal, migration and economic, make that the his position in the International Stage and weak domestic political support for engagement, are increasingly unwilling to pursue foreign policy , objectives through the projection of military force. To compensate, these types of measure the search to control and has influence about the global economy (including the currencies) and through their control over multinational corporations (MNC`s) established in their countries, the last actions that reflect this type of economic warfare, are the economic sanctions , that we mentioned.What need to expect about this first challenge, it is necessary that the States must develop their rules of the road for economic warfare, what is it means this? When the nation-states use the infrastructure of the global economy to pursue political goals, what happen, the most sure is that in that moment the system will break and the measures could provoke that other powers will hedge against it. They could also provoke attacks in revenge among the countries. It is necessary that the states have developed agreements and conventions in the sense to regulate the Economic Warfare, as if one conventional war, regulate the conducts and the positions that the countries need take when this type of situation happen, but also if they regulate this, maybe become more attractive this type of situation for the countries. The geopoliticization of trade talk; a surge of trade talks has taken place across the world with a burgeoning number of negotiations, some pan-regional, some regional and others country by country, in theory new activism could fill the void of new World Order Trade deals and bring about much needed of growth. In reality, major regional talks are likely to accelerate the multipolarization of the world or even competition among regional blocs far beyond trade , with this we also talk about the export processing zone; is a free trade enclave in which foreign firms, or subcontracted local firms that produce goods for export, are encouraged to locate .We can see examples of this in China and Russia, the both countries are trying take away the power to United States and the European Union through developing trade zones and make stronger his ties with other countries.All these moves might benefit the progress of free trade in the world. Yet, trade and economies cannot exist outside the geopolitical context. At the same time as these regional trade talks advance, the world is moving from Pax-Americana to a multipolar system that balances different powers, and, introduce step by step the phenomenon of globalization in all areas of the society. State Capitalism 2.0, we can see the re-emergence not only the capitalism in many countries if not with this the feeling of nationalism arise too, although the United States continues to dominate financial markets, but in the recent years we can see, that the actions of countries as china and Russia, and the supranational entity Europe Union, they have tried to take this control of the United States in the global scenario. The nation-states are using the reforms in areas how legal, policy, to improve the national interests, and also change the rules inside of key sectors and industries regionally and globally, the establishment of norms so much international and regional for certain sectors is now more likely to play a role in national interest in the economic, more that tried to create one model of global governance. As result of this we can said that these type of actions the part of the main global actors, creates s huge gap between the goal of globalization and his reach in a nearly future.Competition for gated markets, not natural resources; First, resources are becoming cheaper, due to the shale gas and oil revolution, and other technological advancements that are reducing dependence on traditional suppliers. Second, the economic and demographic growth as well as human capital development in emerging markets makes them an important source of global aggregate demand and of relatively cheap qualified labor .The nations-states, IGO´s, TMC´s, need to pursue open globalization if they want reduce the risk and variables that the globalization and geo-economic put in the International Stage. It should be a strong advocate for trade liberalization and foreign investment, these types of policies are the most common between the development countries to decrease the protectionism and incentives for conflict, in the same time promote the globalization. But even as multinational corporations strive for a more level and globalized marketplace, they need to brace for bumpier terrain. The companies will need to think more about where they come from and how to be seen as local in different markets. The rise of state capitalism will complicate or even shut off many sectors that are viewed as strategic by home governments but, on the other hand, new areas of opportunity will open up .In relation with this part, it is necessary ask us, if the Glocalization; a term used to describe how global pressures and demands are made to conform to local conditions. Whereas powerful companies might customize their products to local markets, glocalization operates in the opposite direction. Local actors select and modify elements from an array of global possibilities, thereby initiating some democratic and creative engagement between the local and the global, is the right answer for this challenge .The survival of the biggest and hollowing out of the periphery; many people hope that the concept of global governance will lead to a world order more than a world of chaos. As the conventional thinking goes, neighborhood heavyweights will step in, in a largely agreeable way, to set the rules of the road for trade, investment and security. It is true that a disruption in the global level is so strong that many core countries had win a lot of power in their respective regions, these countries leaders are not trying first and foremost to leverage their growing clout into creating fair regional standards, or in his case global alliances with the ideal for make identities supra-national as the European Union, we can imagine one Asia-Union. Instead, they are creating new core periphery relationships that benefit the core, often at the expense of periphery states. With this, we can see, the theory of “survival of the biggest”, this means that the theories as the World System Theory and New International Division of Labor, could be in a nearly future obsolete the both theories, with this new configuration of the world, where the smaller states will need to do more to pool their resources and challenge local dominant powers in tandem, for other side some theorist believe that this is very valid point but does not herald the age of geo-economics. It may be a reversion back to ‘Cold War stability’ through a current process of “geo-defragmentation “.The common threat of a neighborhood hegemon is a powerful impetus. Larger powers, for their part, should recognize the opportunity that small countries in other regions provide, as they look to deepen ties with large and stable outside powers that can give them breathing room . China`s infrastructure-driven alliances; The Infrastructure of China in the 21st century as in the same degree of importance, as the Infrastructure of United States in the seas during the 20th century. Infrastructure finance has thus become a tool of foreign policy and also for create global ties, in particular case for China, which has won the traditional donors in many areas as loans, grants, joint ventures and other underwriting of infrastructure projects in developing countries, in all world.China has increased the direct investment in many undervelopment countries, and we can to add the last comments of the Chinese President when him talk about the main goal to china is, that the country will be become in principal axis of the phenomenon of globalization.The decline of resources and increasing population; If it is true inside of the seven challenges propose for the global economic forum, they only made the mention for the decline in oil prices, I think that the inclusion not only of the oil, if not also of the all resources in general and in relation with that we plus the increasing of population in the world, we have in hands a big issue to understand the main challenge of globalization if not too of the concept of the global governance, in the context of consumerism and the rapid industrialization of many areas in the world, and of course the lack of natural resources and only in a few countries the increase of human population, the world is currently changing with a variety of environmental uncertainties. How the “Global Change” converting a whole variety of ecological issues, and globalization in an economic sense, are two major phenomena that are responsible for these problems. Conclusion; While Globalization has put together the nations in the International Stage, those ties have created negative and positive effects, however it is important that understand the geo-politics include financial independency and infrastructure (media, transportation and facilities) this is essential to sovereignty of one state, and the globalization can be defined as the process of change, increasing interconnectedness and interdependence among countries and economies, bringing the world closer through better world-wide communication, transport and trade links. This process is changing the world dramatically and quickly, affecting economic, social, political and cultural aspects of life and bringing both opportunities and challenges, if well it is true that the geopolitics can be considered antithesis and in the same sense greater triumph of globalization, it is necessary know that the both concepts are complementary. Geopolitics – Globalization (Critics)These are critics about the Geo-Economics Seven Challenges to Globalization and about his short vision about that was is the phenomenon of globalization.• Economic warfare; why it is not possible talk only in the phenomenon of globalization and the geopolitics, talk about the economic warfare, (1) first we need understand for produce one economic warfare, it is necessary that first happen one social gap, one event between the two countries that his primary nature it is not economic if not social, for that it is not possible talk about the economic warfare, the right concept should be social warfare, because when you use the word social, that include all aspects of the society not only the economic, and we need take in consideration the four main aspects of globalization, that are (1) society, (2) government, (3) Companies and (4) Market. • The geopoliticization of trade talk; about this second element that the World Economic Forum talks, it is necessary understand that the trade for companies or states is one economic aspect, but it is not the principal element of trade in the globalization, if we make the analysis since the perspectives sociological and anthropological, the principal trade in the globalization, it is not economic, if not cultural exchange, for that if you want talk about only the economic aspects in the phenomenon of globalization, it is not important is that is the principal topic of the World Economic Forum, you cannot separate only one aspect of globalization, how you can study the globalization if you pretend separate the aspects, so is so contradictory. • State Capitalism 2.0; In the XXI century, you cannot talk about the economic system as capitalism, communism, etc., it is necessary talk about the policies, the international agreements, you need talk about the one global market, because if we continue calling the countries for economic systems for example United States is capitalist, Russia is communist, China is capitalist and communist, that type of labels, it is not possible, Why?, for the simple reason that all countries sometimes make communist policies, other times make capitalist policies and sometimes half to half, so the point is to advance toward the globalization is necessary talk about the policies not system.• Competition for gated markets, not natural resources; I think that more competition between the countries for the gated market, it is necessary the administration of resources and share the market and natural resources, if not what sense has the globalization?• The survival of the biggest and hollowing out of the periphery; how I said the essay about the survival of the classic theories their destiny is disappear, but I don’t agree about the return of cold war, because the main axis of globalization is unify not separate the world again in two blocks. • China`s infrastructure-driven alliances and the decline of resources and increasing population; I think that the two last aspects of this catalog about the seven challenges of globalization, can put together, because China and also India, his population increase every year, so in consequences these two countries will have the bigger population in the world in a few decades, how it is possible reach the necessary equilibrium of this two challenges only with the concepts that I have repeat in the reports in this class every week, that are minimum tolerance, mutual solidarity and human equivalence.References Bremmer Ian, The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations. New York: Portfolio, 2010; revised paperback 2011.Cohen, Robin. Kennedy, Paul, Global Sociology, 2 Ed., New York University Press, 2011, USA.Leonard, Mark, Geo-Economics Seven Challenges to Globalization, 2015, Ed. World Economic Forum Committed to Improving the State of the World.Nahzeem Oluwafemi Mimiko, Globalization: The Politics of Global Economic Relations and International Business, Carolina Academic Press, 2012.Nicholas A. Lambert, Planning Armageddon. British Economic Warfare and the First World War, Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2012.Paul W. James, Central Currents in Globalization, SAGE Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, United States, Four- Volume Set, 2014.