What hearing impairments · long term health conditions

What is Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND)?

Children with SEND have
difficulties or disabilities in learning, in comparison to other children of
the same age, which they require additional and extra help in their education.

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4 Areas of SEND:

1.    Communication and Interaction

a complexed way of

incomplete and
inaccurately phrased sentences

delays in
conversations, due to the increase of time in thinking and understanding the

2.    Cognition and Learning

slower learning pace
than other children of the same age

difficulties in learning
and understanding the curriculum

subdivided into a few
categories, such as specific learning difficulties (SpLD), moderate learning
difficulties (MLD), severe learning difficulties (SLD), profound and multiple
learning difficulties (PMLD). The subcategories are

3.    Social, Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties

emotional turbulence
and difficulties in controlling their behaviours

difficulties in
building and managing social relationships

disruptive behaviours ,
which underlies the possibilities of having mental health difficulties

4.    Sensory and/or Physical Needs

visual and hearing

long term health

additional support or
equipment required for access


2014 SEND CODE of Practice Key Principles

1.    Joint Commissioning of Services between Educational
Institutions, Health and Social Care Services

to ensure that SEND
children are having the right and appropriate support

to promote the wellbeing
of SEND children

to help children with
SEND to prepare for adulthood

2.    Education Health and Care (EHC) Plan

for 0 to 25 years old

replaces the Statement
of SEN and learning of difficulty assessment

emphasis on
inter-agency working

introduction of
personal budget

emphasis on post-16

all the support the
SEND children and their parents will receive

3.    Children with SEND and their Parents’ Point of View

views taking into

need to participate in
decision making

4.    Provide Information and Advice for Children with SEND and
their Parents

must be provided by all
local authorities

through advice,
information and support service

resources and support
should be objective, confidential and accessible

5.    Local Offer (by local authorities) and School Offer (for
schools and colleges)

identify the needs of
the each child

publish clear information
about the support available for SEND children, from 0 to 25 years old

greater transparency of
support, especially for the parents of children with SEND

6.    Resolving Disagreements


Special Educational Needs
and Disabilities Tribunal

rights for children with
SEND and their parents

for disagreements
between the local authorities and the children with SEND or their parents

when the children with
SEND and their parents are unsatisfied with the support provided


The Local Offer (by the Local Authorities)

A Local Offer is ruled by the
local authority, which provides education, health and social care services for
children with SEND in the local area. All local authorities are required to
offer support for the children with SEND, to ensure that they are well educated
and fully prepared for their future. They also need to provide detailed advice
and up to date information for their parents. All accessible support and
guidance provided are needed to be factual and confidential.

Moreover, the Local Offer ensures
that the views of both the child with SEND and their parents are taken into
account and listened. It also enables them to be fully engaged in the
discussions and decision making of the support provided. In addition, the Local
Offer collaborates with different services, in order to provide better support
and information for SEND children. For example, they work in partnership with
educational institutions to discuss about the physical accessibility,
transportation options and transitioning to higher/ further education for
children with SEND in schools/colleges.

The local authorities must be
aware that it is an ongoing process, so their personal information needs to be
up dated on a regular basis. They have the responsibility to organise regular meetings
with both the child with SEND and their parents, to discuss about the support
provided and ask for feedbacks.









SEN Support

It is a plan which describes
the support SEND children gets in their education institution, from the early
years to college. It is also used to ensure that their necessities and needs
are met.

When a child is identified as
having an SEND, the school would produce an SEN support plan which emphasizes
on the services that the school is going to provide, as well as the outcomes
and achievements of the child with SEND, regarding to his/her needs.

The school should…

provide detailed
information about the additional help offered for the children with SEN

understand the concept
of education for all and get rid of the barriers to learning

consider involving
specialists, such as: special educational needs coordinator (SENCO), speech and
language therapist, educational psychologist

SEN support replaces the “School
Action” and “School Action Plus” plans. According to the Code of Practice, the
SEN support is also known as the “graduated approach”, which the support provided
varies as the child with SEND grows up. It also includes the preparations of
transitioning between phases of education.

The SEN support introduced a four
part cycle – Access, Plan, Do, Review; which ensures that the children with SEN
is making good process with the support given.









Education, Health and Care (EHC) Plan

SEN support is based on the children’s
school settings, however, sometimes children with SEN need a more intense level
of help, which the educational institutions would not be able to provide.

The EHC plan is a legal document,
governed by the local authority, which specifies on the additional support children
with SEND can have. It is an effective scheme which monitors the support
programme for the children in needs and to be reviewed frequently. It also replaces
the Statement of SEN. In order to apply for the EHC plan, the child or parents would
need to contact the local authority or the school, to carry out the EHC needs
assessment, which investigates what extra support the child might need in their
life. The assessment looks into the aspiration, interests and views of the
children with SEND, as well as their parents. It would also contact people who
work around the child with SEND, such as: school teachers and educational
psychologists, to gain more information about the child.

The plan emphasises on the
inter-agency working between the educational provision, health care service and
social care service. They collaborate together to provide adequate and detailed
support for children with SEN. As the EHC plan is for children from 0 to young
adult of 25 years old, it also accentuates the ideas of post-16 and their
future adulthood life. It suggests the support in educational services,
apprenticeships, internships and work trainings which are available for
children with SEND, after the age of compulsory schooling.

There are 12 sections in the
EHC plan, which looks into different aspects. For example, Section D looks into
the social care needs that are related to the child’s SEND, and Section J
describes the details of personal budget and how it will be used.

A personal budget is an
additional financial support in the EHC plan, for the educational provision.
Only children who have or assessed as requiring an EHC plan are allowed to
request for a personal budget. It is a fund which is first kept by the local
authority, for the children with SEND and their parents to get extra support in
the child’s education, health and care plan. It can be either be remained with
the local authority or directly held by the parents of the children with SEND.

There are 4 ways of using a
personal budget:

1.    Direct Payments – where you can buy services yourself, with
you money you received

2.    Notional Arrangements – an arrangement between your local
authority and you, that holds the money and services, as directed by you

3.    Third Party Arrangements – where you can choose someone to
manage the funds on behalf of you

4.    A Combination of the Three Above






Parental Rights

to express their
thoughts and ideas

to be involved in all
decision making

to ensure that the
child’s views are taken into account when making decisions

to have access to accurate
and impartial information

to request for a
specific school for the child to attend, including both mainstream school or
special school

to ask for support from
the child’s school and the local authority

to have an annual
report from the school about the child’s progress

to ask for a personal

to decide how to use
the personal budget

to challenge with the
decision made

to disagree with the local
authority about the EHC













Parents’ Responsibilities

identify the difficulties
of the child

recognise and understand
the responsibility of being a parent

set up clear outcomes with
the school

meet up with the school
and teachers at least 3 times a year, excluding the regular parents’ evening event

discuss the activities
and support available for the children, with the school

work with the school
and the local authority, to ensure the child is meeting the outcomes, which are
agreed with

help to assist the
child in achieving the expected outcomes

review the progress of the













Resolving Disagreements

School – to have procedure to
deal with complaints
            – governing bodies need to be

Local Authority – to have policies
to deal with complaints of EHC plans

Mediation – a free and voluntary
meeting, hold by the local council, for children with SEN, parents and the local
authority, to discuss about the disagreement and resolve the quarrel

Special Educational Needs and
Disability Tribunal – a legal court, which listens to the questions and
complaints of children with SEN, parents and the local authority, and decide
whether the agreement should be changed


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