World World turkeys, diseases like syphilis, pumpkins, squash,
Posted On May 17, 2019
World Migration Flip BookBy: Zeeshan Mohamedy, Micah Ryder, Max V. HoffmanThe Columbian ExchangeEurope brought oranges, turnips, pigs, cows, wheat, peaches, diseases like smallpox, grapes, bananas, olives, sugar cane, onions, bees, and coffeeNew World gave the Old World turkeys, diseases like syphilis, pumpkins, squash, tomatoes, corn, beans, coco, pineapples, tobacco, vanilla, potatoes, and peppersThe Spanish enforced Catholic conversions and adherence to Latin language, stomping out Native American cultureThe foods from the New World, along with the vast unused arable fields, provided the Europeans with enough food to create a massive population increaseTons of silver and gold were also brought back to the Old World, originating from Spanish colonies like Peru, New Spain, and La Plata The Columbian Exchange was one of the most influential transfers of goods and resources in Human history. The produce, equipment, and animals involved changed both Europe and the Americas forever. Old World civilizations found a boom in population due to the introduction of cheap carbohydrates like potatoes, and also the thousands of new acres of farmable land available in the colonies. The natives’ lives were changed as well, with new domesticated animals like horses changing the very lifestyle of the Great Plains inhabitants forever. The ruling elite of Europe found profitable commercial industry from the colonization of the New World, especially in Gran Colombia and the Caribbean. The introduction of luxury goods like tobacco and cocoa made ventures to the New World from Europe especially profitable. The Caribbean islands grew sugar adeptly, further attracting Europeans’ attention. Silver and gold were plentiful throughout the New World as well, with extensive mining networks established in New Spain, Peru, and many other colonies. GermsMany diseases like smallpox, syphilis, measles, chicken pox, yellow fever, influenza, malaria, and other infectious bacteria and viruses were exchanged through contact between the indigenous populations and the EuropeansSyphilis was the only New World disease currently known to be transmitted to EuropeSmallpox is assumed to have been the leading factor in the eventual destruction of native empires like the Aztecs, for whom it disrupted social order and ravaged Aztec army camps enough for the Spanish to seize control amidst the chaosThe rapid decline in native populations is one of the reasons the Spanish took interest in the Atlantic Slave Trade, as they needed more forced laborers to manage their commercial enterprisesIt is alleged that about 90% of all Native American casualties were the result of the highly infectious diseases they encountered through contact with Europe Germs were the more effective means taken advantage of by the European conquistadors when subjugating native civilizations in the New World, far more so than guns and steel. In many cases, plague reached the native peoples before the Europeans did, greatly weakening them to the extent that the explorers were able to seize control over entire nation-states with relative ease. The Native Americans weren’t biologically accustomed to the diseases brought by Europe, enjoying thousands of years of isolation since the melting of the icy isthmus used by the Chinese to reach the Americas. Bacteria associated with even the common cold was often enough to incapacitate a warrior for enough time for the Spanish to assert their hegemony, giving the European invaders an unfair advantage beyond advanced firearms and metallurgy techniques. Only one known disease from the New World was brought back to the Old World via Europeans who’d contracted it, syphilis. Causing intense pain and even driving its victims insane, syphilis was still hardly impactful enough to cause serious harm to European society- unlike the diseases which made their way to the Americas. North American ColoniesFrench colonized Canada in 1608 in modern-day city of QuebecEnglish first colonized the New World in 1607, in modern-day VirginiaDutch first colonized Fort Nassau in 1615Russia colonized Alaska in 1741Spain first began the colonization of Mexico in 1519 North America was first colonized in Mexico by the Spaniards in 1519 by conquistador Hernando Cortez. The rest of Europe caught on slowly, taking almost a century to establish their own colonies on the continent. The first would prove to be the English, who established their first colony in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia. They sought to reap the benefits of the local tobacco and export them back to England; the English were harsh toward their native neighbors, similarly to the Spanish. The French began to colonize French Canada in modern-day Quebec in 1608- hoping to trade with the local natives for beaver fur, after the depletion of the European beaver resulted in a major advancement in fur’s value. The Dutch established Fort Nassau in 1615 on the Hudson river, and sought similar interaction with the local indigenous natives- trade. The Dutch would later be evicted from the Hudson by the English, and their colonies would become what is now known as New York. Russia also participated in the division of North America, seizing Alaska in the 18th Century. They would eventually sell the land to the United States after fears of British occupation of the colony during the Crimean War. Captain James Cook’s travels and outcomesCaptain James Cook’s was a British explorer that came into contact with Australia. At first, he had a peaceful encounter with the Aboriginals, but after England decided to colonize Australia and send prisoners there, they kicked out the tribes on the coastal cities, such as Sydney, and began using it as a dumping ground in 1786. Many shipments arrived and British settlement began a penal colony which lasted until 1850. Immigration influx occurred in the 1850s and 1890s with the discovery of gold. Prior to this, most of the settlers were men, because they made up most of the incarcerated peoples. After the end of their sentences, they remained in Australia and worked in the city or countryside. Because of the extreme male to female ratio, rape and homosexuality flourished, which was became quite a problem (the rape not homosexuality) for the region until actual migrants started pouring in. The population tripled in 40 years to 3.8 million. The penal colony became an actual colony and was no longer controlled with military rule. A parliament was established and the region gained sovereignty in 1901. The country is still part of the British commonwealth and has a british parliament.Captain James Cook’s also traveled to New Zealand where he encountered the Maori tribe and had an unfortunate encounter. The people were not peaceful and killed 4 men on his voyage. New Zealand currently is populated with Europeans and an influential country in the world. Many Maoris died off due to diseases and the chiefs were confiscated to neighboring islands. The language spoken in Australia is English due to the British colonization. Some aboriginal languages exist within the indigenous groups but are quickly dying out. The migrants were mostly Roman Catholic or Anglican with a good number of Mormons due to Mormon missionaries in the mid 20th century. Eureka rebellion: A revolt by the gold miners against the colonial government in 1854Lambing Flat riots: An anti-chinese revolt against the chinese migrants in search of gold. The Chinese Immigration act was passed, similar to the chinese exclusion act in California to limit immigration. Penal colony: A settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.Alluvial gold: Gold found within the soil. Aboriginal: The indigenous groups of Australia that were native to the land thousands of years before the colonists arrived. SlaverySlave trade has occurred since the seventh centurySlaves had always been a part of Arab tradeSlaves had been consistently traded with Europe through the Mediterranean and the Eastern world through the Indian OceanSlaves were common among the great states of AfricaSlaves were both symbolically and literally a form of wealth Slavery has been a human practice for thousands of years. One of the earliest accounts of slavery is through arab trade in the seventh century. Arabs brought slaves through the Sahara, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. African traders had also been supplying slaves since the 700s’. The Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires moved slaves along with gold, ivory, and other trade goods north through the Sahara. These early African empires had nearly a third of their populations enslaved, giving them constant supply of slaves to trade with. This supply brought the interest of the Muslim traders who would supply to all of Europe. Once European countries began to colonize and expand, their interest in Africa grew immensely. African empires began to increase the rate at which they acquired slaves in order to accommodate the new Atlantic slave trade. Empires and tribes would go to war in order to gain slaves for trade. As the tribes and empires fought, the winning side would take prisoners as slaves. Many of these conflicts would take place in central Africa where they would be brought to the coast for Atlantic trade with Europeans. Despite the desire of many African rulers to end the slave trade which some leaders claimed to be destroying African society, European payment and simple convenience kept the slave trade alive and thriving in Africa.Ottoman EmpireThe Turks, themselves, are an ethnically diverse nomadic group that spanning across Central Asia. Many ended up in Asia Minor and were pushed west due to the invading Mongols. The Turks established few empire, namely the Mamluk sultanate and many Khantates, before successfully establishing one of the longest ruling empires in the world, the Ottoman Empire, which lasted from (cerca) 1300- 1922. Ottoman is an Italian corruption of Osmaniye, named after the founder Osman I. Osman’s place and date of birth is mostly unknown, but once can presume that he is from central Anatolia, although he was a Turkmen chief. Turkmen mostly preside in the region that is current day Turkmenistan, but as stated before, they were pushed west. The turkmen people are still considered an offshoot of the Turkic peoples. Most of the countries and tribes in central Asia are Turkic, except Azerbaijan, and their languages are similar, but not the same. Today, these countries use the russian script from Soviet invasion, but some of the tribes maintain the arabic script from Islamic influence. Before The 10th century, the script, now called Old Turkic, was a branch of the Proto-Sinaitic script. Similar languages that have also branched from this parent are the Phoenician, Aramaic, and Syriac language. The Hebrew language is also closely related to the Proto-Sinaitic script. Due to the Islamic influence already presiding in the region and Mongolian influence in the villages of central Asia, The turks were devout Muslim and much of the area, today, is still Muslim. Osman established a Sultanate, like the Islamic empires of the past, and he had caliph governors in the big cities. The Sultan, or King, had full authority over the empire and final say to all private, public, and international ordeals. After they overthrew the Mamluk Sultanate, they controlled the holy cities of Makkah and Medina, which made them inseparable from Islam. Gazi: A warrior or war leader in islam, sometimes used as a military title among the Turks. Osman I is called Osman Gazi and gazi translates to “raider” in arabic.Dar-al-Islam: Lands under the jurisdiction of Muslim rulers and law; by extension, lands in which muslims are free to practice their religionSufi: in Islam, a member of one of the orders practicing mystical forms of worship that first arose in the 8th and 9th centuriesJanissary: A member of the elite corps of ottoman foot soldiers that was mostly comprised of boys captured from Christian peasants in the Balkans called the Devshirme systemMadrasa: A traditional Islamic school of higher education, principally of theology and law. Mughal EmpireThe Mughal empire was ruled by Muslims in India. The founder, Babur, was a descendant of Genghis Khan and he was Timur the Great great grandson. Babur was also born in present-day Uzbekistan which, at the time, was part of the Timurid Empire, which was controlled from Persia. The Timurid Empire was replaced by the Safavid empire only 20 years before the Mughal Empire was established. Like the Ottoman Empire, its origin began with the Turkic people. These people of Central Asia was largely impacted due to the Mongolian invasion and so many tribes were Turkic-Mongolian. Mughal is the word for Mongol in the Persian language. A similar trait between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empire was that its founders were Turkic and Muslim and much ethnic mixing occurred in these lands. Like the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal was largely Sunni. Much of the governance derives from Islamic law, but the rulers interpreted them much differently. The main rulers were Akbar and Aurangzeb in the 16th and 17th centuries respectively. Akbar was the grandson of Babur and Aurangzeb was the To simply put it, Akbar encouraged religious toleration while Aurangzeb did not. Akbar’s vision of the Mughal empire was to unify all the religions in the area and hold theological discussions. He revoked the jizya and gave equal rights to all religious groups. Aurangzeb, did quite the opposite and many of the problems in the India and Pakistan today are a result of Aurangzeb’s intolerance and incompetence. He killed and persecuted other religious groups, namely the Sikhs, and reinstated the jizya. There were many revolts and rebellions to overthrow him, but eventually the British empire did so. England only worsened the existing divisions between Muslims and Hindus. Urdu was a language that was invented due to syncretism and consisted of Arabic script with a combination of Sanskrit, Persian, and Arabic vocabulary. Even today, Hindi is very similar to Urdu, except it was replaced with the Sanskrit script in the early 20th century. Jizya: A tax levied on non-Muslims who were considered monotheistic people of the book and therefore to be protected: Jews, Christians, and later, Zoroastrians and Hindus. Syncretism: The mixture of different religious traditions. The term is also used to refer to hybridity in other areas, such as art and cultureSikhs: Members of a religious community founded in the Punjab region in North India in the 16th century. It combines devotional Hinduism with Sufism and became a militant armed group in the face of militant opposition. Zamindar: The aristocrats of the Mughal Empire and owned land. They made up the nobility under AkbarMansabdar: An administrative system under Akbar. He granted officers mansabs and it included their rank and pay. Safavid EmpireLike the other two empires, the Safavid Empire was founded by a Turk, Ismail I in the early 16th century. Unlike the other two empires, it was based on Shi’ism, specifically the Twelver denomination. This empire replaced the Timurid Empire, founded by a Mongolian, Timur the Great. Ismail, although a Turk, was a the first ruler since the Sassanid Empire to re-establish ancient Persian traditions and culture into the empire and ruling class. He used the term “shah” to refer to the king. He was born in North Iran and recruited most of his troops from Azerbaijan. He also had a system called Ghulam which is much like the devshirme system. He brought in boys from the Caucus for the artillery and gave them high administrative positions. This was done so the tribes would have no resistance in an attempt to unite the Iranians and neighboring tribes. It would also be easy to expand.. The language, Farsi, was used as always. For this age, historians use “classical persian” since the persian language has been used since the 8th century to now. The script is arabic but maintains most vocabulary from the early Iranians. Anderun: Similar to the Harem in the Ottoman Empire. It was a place where the Shah kept his wives, concubines, and allowed his eunuch to protect him. It was meant for the women to have privacy and seclusion and perform sexual rituals. Shah: the “King of Kings”, traditionally used to refer to rulers in ancient PersiaIsfahan: The capital of the empire in central Iran. It was moved here because of attacking Ottoman forces. Esfahan became a grand city with much syncretism and trading. Imam: an Islamic religious leaderSafavids: the followers of Shaykh Safi al-Din, who was spreading a sect of Shi’ism. Ismail found the teachings, spread the religion, and claimed to be a messiah.Ming/Manchu EmpireMing established in 1368 after usurping control from the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.Main focus was defending against the MongolsManchurians conquered Ming and established the Manchu or Qing Dynasty in 1644Qing Dynasty focused on expansion through trade and land acquisitionChina’s population was able to rapidly grow due to this expansion of trade with foodstuffs from the New World After the invasion of the Mongols in 1211, the Mongol invaders would eventually establish the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty would then be overthrown for by the Ming Dynasty in 1368 and would last until 1644. The Ming would focus much of their efforts on strengthening hina from the inside. Pressure from coastal prates and Mongols from the north fueled this improvement of infrastructure. The rebuilding of the northern Great Wall, reopening of the north-south canals, and the restriction of European trade all led to China’s internal growth. By 1600, China’s population grew to over 150 million people, about a fifth of the world’s’ population. Despite the many internal improvements the Ming Dynasty attempted to make, it would not be enough to prevent another invasion from the north. The Manchurians would establish the Manchu or Qing Dynasty in 1644 and it would last until 1911. The Manchu Dynasty strengthened China through international relations. Early on, China made a new ally in Russia and began coastal trading with Europe through the “Canton System’. The Canton System of trading allowed China to regulate it’s intake of foreign goods, while maximizing export of renewable goods that Europe wanted. China became one of the richest nations in the world during the exploration of the New World by Europeans. Silver increased its capital immensely and new world crops like potatoes, corn, and peanuts were all becoming staple foods that allowed China’s population to grow to even greater numbers. City (Edo)Era of isolation brought about by the Tokugawa ShogunateCenter city of all of of Japan (present day Tokyo)Self sufficiencySocial classes were frozen and social mobility was removedDomains leader system or Daimyos used to control land and large housesThe city of Edo symbolizes the greater Tokugawa Period or “Edo Period” during which it gained its merit as a powerful city. In 1633, the shogun, Tokugawa leyasu began Japans’ period of isolation. After religious conflicts brought about by Christianity from Europe, the Tokugawa Shogunate declared that the Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad and those already abroad, largely, could not return. Any and all international trade would be cut off save for a few ships a year coming from China and the Netherlands. The Shogun also destroyed and long-range seafaring vessels, completely sealing off Japan. In order to maintain peace in this isolation, Daimyos or lords were utilized across Japan in order to control the people without the Shogunate’s direct intervention. The Shogunate would also freeze all social mobility in order to maintain order and prosperity. Merchants and peasants who might have grown rich would be stuck in their current social position despite wealth or prosperity. But this social lock allowed for control of what the Japanese population could produce and achieve.The Tokugawa Shogunate would establish I system of specialization and reuse in order to feed and create surplus for the Japanese population. This process was utilized the most in Edo. Edo utilized human feces to enrich soil so more food could be grown. Craft guilds would form exclusively around the reuse of materials and items. Clothing would be mended and resold as many times as possible. Household items (pots and cups) would be repaired and maintained to extend their lifespan. Even wax drippings were collected and used to make new candles. This system allowed the Japanese economy to prosper and the population to grow while staying at a manageable level (30 million at the peak). However, despite the success of Edo and the Edo Period, it would end as world wide industrialization broke Japan’s isolation and pushed it into the spotlight of the world.